# HEAT TRANSFER GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

SUBJECT CODE:- 2151909

SUBJECT NAME:- HEAT TRANSFER

B.E 5th SEMESTER

1. Fundamental:- Modes of heat transfer, effect of temperature on thermal conductivity of different solids, liquids and gases, derivation of generalized equation in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates and its reduction to specific cases, General laws of heat transfer.
2. Conduction:- Fourier’s law, One dimensional steady state conduction, heat conduction through plane and composite walls, cylinders and spheres, electrical analogy, critical radius of insulation for cylinder and sphere, overall heat transfer coefficient.                                                                                                                                                                                                        Transient heat conduction:- lumped heat capacity analysis, time constant, transient heat conduction in solid with finite conduction and convective resistances.                                                                                                                                                              Heat transfer from extended surface:- Types of fin, heat flow through rectangular fin, infinitely long fin, fin insulated at the tip and fin losing heat at the tip, efficiency and effectiveness of fin, Biot number, Estimation of error in temperature measurement in a thermometer well.
3. Convection:- Newton’s law of cooling, dimensional analysis applied to forced and free convection, dimensionless numbers  and their physical significance, empirical correlations for free and forced convection, continuity, momentum and energy equation, thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer, Blasius solution for laminar boundary layer, General solution for Von-Karman integral momentum equation
4. Radiation:- Absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity, black, white, and grey body, emissive power, emissivity, laws of radiation- Planck, Stefan-Boltzmann, Wein’s displacement, Kirchhoff’s law, intensity of radiation and solid angle, Lambert’s cosine law. Radiation heat exchange between black bodies, shape factor, heat exchange between non-black bodies- infinite parallel planes and infinite long concentric cylinders, radiation shield, heat exchange between two grey surfaces, electrical analogy.
5. Heat exchanger:- Classification, heat exchanger analysis, LMTD for parallel and counter flow exchanger, condenser and evaporator, overall heat transfer coefficient, fouling factor, correction factors for multi pass arrangement, effectiveness- NTU method for parallel and counter flow heat exchanger, introduction of heat pipe and compact heat exchanger.
6. Two -phase heat transfer:- Boiling of liquids, Pool boiling curve, different types of pool boiling, condensation of vapor, Film wise & drop wise condensation.

### Fundamentals of Heat Transfer

1
Thermodynamic and Heat Transfer
2
Modes of Heat Transfer
3
Mechanism of Heat Transfer by Conduction
4
Basic Definitions Relating to Heat Transfer
5
Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
6
Heat Conduction through a Wall/Slab
7
Analogy Between Heat Conduction and Electricity
8
Convection
9
10
11
General Heat Conduction Equation in Cartesian Co-ordinates
12
Special Cases of General Heat Conduction Equation
13
Heat Conduction Equation in Cylindrical (Polar) Co-ordinates
14
General Heat Conduction Equation in Spherical Co-ordinates

### Conduction

1
One Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction through Plane Wall or Infinite Slab without Heat Generation
2
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U
3
Thermal Contact Resistance
4
One Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction through Hollow Cylinder without Heat Generation
5
Heat Transfer through a Composite Cylinder with Conduction and Convection
6
One Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction through Hollow Sphere without Heat Generation
7
Combined Heat Transfer by Conduction and Convection in Compound Sphere
8
Thermal Insulation
9
Critical Thickness of Insulation
10
Critical Thickness of Insulation in Case of Sphere
11
Economic Thickness of Insulation
12
Introduction to Transient Heat Conduction
13
System with Negligible Internal Resistance- Lumped Heat Capacity Method
14
Time Constant and Response of Thermocouple
15
Introduction to Fins
16
Extended Surface-Fins
17
Types of Fins and Application
18
Analysis of Fins of Uniform Cross- Sectional Area(Reactangular Plate Fin / Pin Fin)
19
Effectiveness of Fins
20
Fin Efficiency
21
Overall Fin Effectiveness
22
Error in Temperature Measurement by Thermometer

### Convection Heat Transfer

1
Introduction
2
Basic Definitions Related to Convection
3
Viscosity
4
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
5
Continuity Equation
6
Differential Equation of Momentum for Fluid Flow
7
Energy Equation
8
Blasius Solution for Laminar Boundary Layer
9
Von Karman Integral Momentum Equation : (Laminar Flow Over Flat Plate)
10
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
11
Boundary Layer Concept
12
The Thermal Boundary Layer
13
Velocity Boundary Layer Development in Circular Pipes in Forced Convection
14
Thermal Boundary Layer in Circular Pipes
15
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient
16
Dimensional Analysis
17
Physical Significance of Dimensionless Numbers
18
Forced Convection Correlations: Flow through Circular Pipe
19
Co- relations for Fluid Flow Over the Plate
20
Co- relation for Flow Across a Horizontal Cylinder
21
Reynold’s Analogy for Laminar Fluid Over Flate Plate
22
Mechanism of Natural Convection
23
Coefficient of Volumetric Expansion
24
Dimensional Analysis of Natural Convection
25
Physical Significance of Dimensionless Numbers in Natural Convection
26
Correlation Applicable to Natural Convection

1
2
3
Total Emissive Power of a Surface (E)
4
5
Basic Concept and Definations
6
7
Emissivity of Real Surfaces
8
Intensity of Radiation (I) and Solid Angle
9
Heat Exchange Between Two Finite Black Surfaces by Radiation
10
11
Heat Exchange Between Grey Bodies
12
Application of Electrical Analogy to Thermal Radiation Heat Exchange Problems
13
14
Radiation Error in Temperature Measurement by Thermocouple
15
16
Green House Effect
17
Radiation from Gases, Vapours and Flames

### Heat Exchangers

1
Definition and Application of Heat Exchangers
2
Classification of Heat Exchangers
3
Temperature Distribution in Heat Exchangers
4
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U)
5
Fouling Factor
6
Analysis of Heat Exchanger
7
The Effectiveness- NTU Method
8
Heat Pipe
9
Design Aspect of Heat Exchanger and its Selection

### Condensation and Boiling (Two Phase Heat Transfer)

1
Introduction
2
Condensation
3
Laminar Film Condensation on Vertical Plate
4
Condensation of Inclined Plate
5
Condensation on a Single Horizontal Tube
6
Boiling
7
Regimes of Pool Boiling
8
Forced Convection Boiling