REGRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (19)

SUBJECT NAME:- REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING

SUBJECT CODE:- 2161908

B.E. 6th SEMESTER

  1. Introduction:- Brief history and need of refrigeration and air conditioning, methods of producing cooling, ton of refrigeration, coefficient of performance, types and application of refrigeration  and air condensing system.
  2. Refrigerants:- classification, nomenclature, desirable properties, secondary refrigerants, future industrial refrigerants.
  3. Air refrigeration:- Reversed Carnot cycle and its limitation, Bell-Coleman cycle, aircraft refrigeration, working and analysis of simple; Bootstrap; Reduced ambient and Regenerative air refrigeration systems.
  4. Vapor Compression system- Simple system on P-h and T-s diagrams, analysis of the simple cycle, factors affecting the performance of the cycle, actual cycle                                                                                                                                          Compound Compression System:- Compound Compression with intercooler, flash gas removal and flash intercooler, multiple evaporators with back pressure valves and with multiple expansion valves without flash intercooling, analysis of two evaporators with flash intercooler and individual expansion valve and multiple expansion valve, Cascade refrigeration system.
  5. Absorption refrigeration system:- Practical H20-NH3 Cycle, LiBr-H2O system and its working, h-x diagram and simple calculation of various process like adiabatic mixing and mixing with heat transfer, throttling, Electrolux refrigeration system.
  6. Refrigeration system components:- Types, Construction, working, comparison and selection of compressors, condensers, expansion devices and evaporator; refrigeration piping accessories, evacuation and charging of refrigerant, properties and classification of thermal insulation.
  7. Psychrometry:- Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Properties of moist air, temperature and humidity measuring instruments, psychometric chart, psychrometric processes such as sensible heating and cooling, heating and humidification cooling and dehumidification, chemical dehumidification, adiabatic saturation.
  8. Human comfort:- Selection of inside design conditions, thermal comfort, heat balance equation for a human being, factors affecting thermal comfort, effective temperature, comfort chart and factors governing effective temperature, selection of outside design conditions
  9. Load analysis:-site survey, outdoor and indoor design conditions. classification of loads, flywheel effect of building material and its use in design, effect of wall construction on cooling load, instantaneous heat gain (IHG) and instantaneous cooling load (ICL) heat  transmission through sunlit and shaded glass using tables, method of reduction of solar heat gain through glass, calculation of cooling load TETD due sunlit and shaded roof and walls using tables, ventilation and air infiltration, load due to outside air , heat gain from occupants; electric lights; product; electric motor and appliances, load calculations for automobiles, use of load estimation sheet. Introduction of CLTD method
  10. Duct design and air distribution:- Function; classification and economic factor influencing duct layout, equal friction , velocity reduction and static regain methods of duct design, use of  friction chart, dynamic losses and its determination,  Requirements of air distribution system, air distribution, grills, outlets, application, location.
  11. Air-Conditioning systems:- Classification, system components, all air; all water ; and air-water systems, room air conditioners,  packaged air conditioning plant, central air conditioning system, split air conditioning systems.

Review of Thermodynamics

1
Introduction
2
Thermodynamics System
3
Dimensions and Units
4
Energy
5
Ideal Gas Equation
6
Enthalpy
7
Specific Heats if a Gas
8
First Law of Thermodynamics
9
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to Closed System Processes
10
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics to Steady Flow Open Systems
11
Mechanical Work in Steady Flow Process
12
Second Law of Thermodynamics
13
Carnot’s Theorem
14
Entropy
15
Principle of Increase of Entropy
16
Entropy Change for Ideal Gas – General Equation
17
State of a Substance
18
Pure Substance
19
Phase Transformation at Constant Pressure- Formation of Steam
20
Properties of Steam
21
Steam Table and Their Uses
22
Temperature- Entropy (T-s) and Enthalpy- Entropy(h-s) Diagrams for Steam
23
Compressed Liquid
24
Heat Transfer
25
Modes of Heat Transfer
26
Heat Transfer by Conduction
27
Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
28
Convection
29
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U
30
Heat Transfer in an Infinitely Long Cylinder
31
Heat Transfer Through a Hollow Sphere
32
Heat Transfer through A Composite Cylinder with Conduction and Convection
33
Thermal Insulation
34
Radiation
35
Stefan-Boltzmann Law of Radiation

Basic and Development of Refrigeration

1
Development of Refrigeration
2
Definition of Refrigeration
3
Systems of Refrigeration
4
Non-cyclic Refrigeration
5
Refrigeration by Expansion of Air
6
Refrigeration by Throttling of Gas
7
Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
8
Liquid Gas Refrigeration
9
Vortex Tube Refrigeration System
10
Thermoelectric Refrigerator
11
Production of Low Temperature by Magnetic Cooling
12
Steam Jet Refrigeration System
13
Concept of Heat Engine, Heat Pump, and Refrigerating Machines
14
Unit of Refrigeration- Tons of Refrigeration(TR)
15
Applications of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
16
Refrigerators
17
Water coolers
18
Deep Freezers
19
Ice Making Plant
20
Preservation of Food
21
Types of Cold Storage
22
Milk Chilling Plant for Dairy

Refrigerants

1
Introduction
2
Classification of Refrigerants
3
Classification of Primary Refrigerants
4
Design of Refrigerants
5
Desirable Properties of a Good Refrigerant
6
Properties of Important Refrigerants
7
Selection of a Refrigerant
8
Secondary Refrigerants
9
Effect of CFCs on Ozone Depletion and Global Warming
10
Montreal Protocol
11
Search of Alternative Refrigerants of CFCs
12
Promising Alternatives to CFCs Refrigerants
13
Kyoto Protocol and TEWI
14
Natural Refrigerants

Air Refrigeration Systems

1
Air Refrigeration System
2
The Carnot Refrigerator
3
Bell-Coleman Air Refrigeration Cycle
4
Application of Air Cycle Refrigeration for Aircrafts
5
Methods of Air Refrigeration Systems
6
Simple Air Cooling System
7
Simple Air Evaporative Cooling System
8
Bootstrap Air Refrigeration System
9
Bootstrap Air Evaporative Cooling System
10
Reduced Ambient Air Cooling System
11
Regenerative Air Cooling System
12
Compression of Various Aircraft Cooling Systems

Vapour Compression System

1
Limitation of Air Refrigeration Cycle
2
The Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
3
Pressure- Enthalpy (p-h) Chart for Refrigerants
4
Thermodynamic Analysis of Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle
5
Wet Compression vs Dry Compression
6
Effect of Operating Variable on Performance of Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
7
Expansion Cylinder Vs Throttle Valve
8
Thermodynamics Properties of Saturated Refrigerants
9
Actual Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle

Compound Compression System

1
Limitation and Drawbacks of Simple Vapour Compression Refrigeration Cycle
2
Multistage Vapour Compression System
3
Types of Multistage Vapour Compression System
4
Two stage Compression with Liquid Intercooler
5
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler and Liquid Sub-cooler
6
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler Liquid Sub- cooler and Liquid Flash Chamber
7
Two Stage Compression with Water Intercooler Liquid Sub-cooler and Flash Intercooler
8
Multiple Evaporator and compressor Systems
9
Multiple Evaporator at the Same Temperature and Single Compressor System
10
Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperature with Single Compressor Individual Expansion Valves and Back Pressure Valve System
11
Multiple Evaporators at Different Temperatures With Single Compressor Multiple Expansion Valves and Back Pressure Valves
12
Multiple Evaporators with Individual Compressors and Individual Expansion Valves
13
Multiple Evaporators with Individual Compressors and Multiple Expansion Valves
14
Multiple Evaporator with Compound Compression and Individual Expansion Valves
15
Multiple Evaporator System with Compound Compression Individual Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
16
Multiple Evaporator System with Compound Expansion, Multiple Expansion Valves and Flash Intercoolers
17
Cascade System of Refrigeration

Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System

1
Introduction
2
Refrigerant- Solvent Properties
3
Simple Ammonia- Water Vapour Absorption System
4
Practical Ammonia- Water Vapour Absorption System
5
Compression between Vapour Absorption and Vapour Compression System
6
COP of An Ideal Vapour Absorption System
7
Domestic Electrolux (NH3-H2) Refrigerator
8
Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration System
9
New Mixtures for Vapour Absorption System
10
Theory of Mixtures
11
Temperature- Concentration (t-z) Diagram for Binary Mixtures
12
Enthalpy Concentration Diagram( h-z)
13
Adiabatic Mixing of Two Streams

Refrigeration System Components

1
Introduction
2
Compressor
3
Reciprocating Compressor
4
Rotary Compressor
5
Centrifugal Compressor
6
Screw Compressor
7
Scroll Compressor
8
Hermetically Sealed Compressor
9
Condensers
10
Expansion and Flow Control Devices
11
Evaporator
12
Accessories
13
Controls
14
Piping in Refrigeration System
15
Insulation In Refrigeration
16
Services Operations

Psychrometry

1
Introduction
2
Psychrometry and Psychrometric Properties
3
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
4
Dry Bulb Temperature
5
Specific Humidity or Humidity Ratio
6
Relative Humidity
7
Degree Of Saturation
8
Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature or Adiabatic Saturation of Air
9
Enthalpy of Air
10
Dew Point Temperature
11
Vapour Density or Absolute Humidity
12
Specific Volume
13
Psychrometric Chart
14
Psychrometric Processes
15
Adiabatic Mixing of Air Streams
16
Sensible Heating
17
Sensible Cooling
18
Humidification and Dehumidification of Air
19
Cooling and Dehumidification
20
Adiabatic Cooling or Evaporative Cooling or Cooling with Humidification Process
21
Heating with Humidification
22
Chemical Dehumidification or Sorbent Dehumidification
23
Spray Processes

Human Comfort and Load Analysis

1
Introduction
2
Outside Design Conditions
3
Inside Design Condition
4
Human Comfort Chart
5
Sources of Heat Load
6
Heat Gain Through Glass
7
Heat Load through Opaque Surface
8
Infiltration
9
Ventilation
10
Outside Air Load
11
Occupancy Heat Load
12
Lighting
13
Equipment
14
Product Brought in
15
System Heat Gain
16
Equipment Selection
17
RSHF ERSHF
18
Psychrometric Analysis of Estimated Heat Load
19
Psychrometric Analysis of Uncommon Load Patterns
20
Partial Load Analysis
21
Winter Air Conditioning

Duct Design and Air Distribution

1
Introduction
2
Supply Air Duct
3
Fire Dampers
4
Flow Through Duct
5
Pressure Losses in the Duct
6
Loss of Pressure Due to Friction
7
Equivalent Diameter of a Circular Duct or Rectangular Duct
8
Friction Chart for Circular Ducts
9
Dynamic Losses in Duct
10
Methods of Duct Design
11
Pressure Drop in Ducts
12
Room Air Distribution
13
Types of Outlets
14
Location of Outlet
15
Return Air System

Air Conditioning System

1
Introduction
2
Unitary System
3
Central Air Conditioning System
4
Air Conditioning Systems
5
Direct Expansion System
6
All Water System
7
All Air System
8
Air -Water System
9
Air Conditioning Equipments
10
Air Cleaners
11
Cooling Coil
12
Heating Device
13
Humidifier
14
Fans

Be the first to add a review.

Please, login to leave a review
Course available for 180 days
Enrolled: 0 students
Lectures: 211

Archive