FLUID MECHANICS

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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

FLUID MECHANICS

SUBJECT CODE:- 2141906

B.E 4th SEMESTER

  1. Fluid and Their Properties:- Introduction of fluid, fluid classification, hypothesis of continuum, Shear stress in moving fluid, molecular structure of material, fluid density, viscosity, causes of viscosity in gases and liquids, surface tension, capillary effect, vapor pressure, cavitation, compressibility and the bulk modules.
  2. Pressures and Head:- Types of Pressure, Pascal’s law of pressure at a point, variation of pressure vertically in fluid under gravity, equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid, general equation for the variation of pressure due to gravity from a point to point in a static fluid, pressure and head, the hydrostatic paradox, pressure measurements using Elastic Pressure Transducers, Force Balance Pressure gauge, Electrical Pressure Transducers.
  3. Static Forces on Surface and Buoyancy:- Fluid static, action of fluid pressure on surface, resultant force and center of pressure on a plane surface under uniform pressure, resultant force and center of pressure on a plane surface immersed in a liquid, pressure diagram, forces on a curved surface due to hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of a submerged body, stability of floating bodies, determination of the metacentric height, determination of the position of the metacenter relative to the center of buoyancy.
  4. Motion of Fluid Particles and Streams:- Fluid flow, different types of flow, frames of reference, analyzing fluid flow, motion of a fluid particle, acceleration of a fluid particle, discharge and mean velocity, continuity of flow, continuity equations for 2-D and 3-D flow in cartesian coordinates of system.
  5. The Energy Equation and its Application:-  Momentum and fluid flow, momentum equation for 2-D and 3-D flow along a streamline, momentum correction factor, Euler’s equation of motion along a stream line, Mechanical energy of a flowing flid Bernoulli’s theorem, kinetic energy correction factor, pitot tube, determination of volumetric flow rate via pitot tube, changes of pressure in tapering pipe, principle of venturi meter, pipe orifices, theory of small orifices discharging to atmosphere, theory of large orifices, Rotameter, elementary theory of notches and weirs, flow in a curved path.
  6. Two-Dimensional Ideal Fluid Flow:- Rotational and ir- rotational flow, circulation and vorticity, streamlines and the stream function, velocity potential and potential flow, relation between stream function and velocity potential; flow nets, stream function and velocity potential for uniform flow, vortex flow.
  7. Dimensional Analysis And Similarities:- Dimension reasoning, dimensional homogeneity, dimensional analysis using Rayleigh’s method, Buckingham pi- theorem, significance of dimensionless, use of dimensionless numbers in experimental investigation, geometric similarity, dynamic similarity, Kinematic similarity, model testing- Model laws, Undistorted and distorted models.
  8. Viscous Flow:- Reynolds number and Reynolds experiment, flow of viscous fluid through circular pipe- Hagen Poiseuille formula, Flow of viscous fluid between two parallel fixed plates, power absorbed in viscous flow through- journal, foot step and collar bearing, movement of piston in dash pot, method of measurement of viscosity.
  9. Turbulent Flow1;- Expression for coefficient of friction- Darchy Weishbach Equation, Moody diagram resistance of smooth and rough pipes shear stress and velocity distribution in turbulent flow through pipes.
  10. Flow through pipes:- Major energy losses, Minor energy losses, Hydraulic gradient and total energy lines, Pipes in series and parallel, Equivalent pipes, Siphon, power transmission through pipe, flow through nozzle at end of pipe, water hammer in pipes.
  11. Compressible Flow:- Basic equation for one dimensional compression, Pressure wave propagation, sound velocity in fluid, Mach number, Stagnation properties.

Fluids and their Properties

1
Introduction
2
Fluids
3
Shear stress in moving fluid
4
Difference between solid and fluid
5
Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid
6
Liquids and Gases
7
Molecular Structure of material
8
The continuum concept of a fluid
9
Density
10
Viscosity
11
Cause of Viscosity in gases
12
Cause of Viscosity in liquid
13
Surface tension
14
Capillary or Meniscus Effect
15
Vapor Pressure
16
Cavitation
17
Compressibility and the bulk modulus
18
Equation of state of a perfect gas
19
The universal gas constant
20
Specific heats of a gas
21
Expansion of a gas

Pressure and Head

1
Static’s of fluid system
2
Pressure
3
Pascal’s law of pressure at a points
4
Variation of pressure vertically in a fluid under the gravity
5
Equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid
6
General equation for the variation of pressure due to gravity from point to point in a static fluid
7
Pressure and Head
8
The Hydrostatic Paradox
9
Pressure Measurement by Manometer
10
Forced Vortex

Static Forces on Surface and Buoyancy

1
Action of fluid pressure on surface
2
Resultant force (total pressure force) and centre of pressure on a plane surface under uniform pressure
3
Resultant force (total pressure force) and centre of pressure on a plane surface immersed in a liquid
4
Pressure Diagram
5
Force on a curved surface due to Hydrostatic pressure
6
Bouyancy
7
Equilibrium of Floating Bodies
8
Stability of submerged body
9
Stability of floating bodies
10
Determination of the metacentric height
11
Determination of the position of the metacenter relative to the center of buoyancy
12
Periodic time of oscillation

Motion of fluid particles and Streams

1
Fluid flow
2
Different types of flow or classification of fluid flow
3
Frames of reference
4
Real and ideal fluids
5
Analyzing fluid flow
6
Motion of a fluid particle
7
Acceleration of a fluid particle
8
Discharge and mean velocity
9
Continuity of flow
10
Continuity equations for 2-D and 3-D flow in Cartesian – coordinates system

The Energy equation and its application

1
Momentum and fluid flow
2
Momentum equation for two and three- dimensional flow along a streamline
3
Momentum correction factor
4
Euler’s equation of motion along a stream line
5
Mechanical energy of a flowing fluid – Bernoulli’s theorem
6
Kinetic energy correction factor
7
Pitot tube
8
Determination of volumetric flow rate via pitot tube
9
Changes of pressure in tapering pipe
10
Principle of Venturi meter
11
Pipe orifices
12
Limitation on the velocity of flow in a pipeline
13
Theory of small orifices discharging to atmosphere
14
Theory of large orifices
15
Elementary theory of notches and weirs
16
Flow in curved path- Pressure gradient and change of total energy across the streamline

Two-Dimensional ideal fluid flow

1
Rotational and irrotational flow
2
Circulation and Vorticity
3
Streamlines and the stream functions
4
Velocity potential and potential flow
5
Relation between stream function and velocity potential flow nets
6
Stream function and velocity potential for uniform flow
7
Vortex flow

Dimensional Analysis and Similarities

1
Dimensional Analysis
2
Application of dimensional analysis
3
Dimension and units
4
Fundamental and derived units and dimensions
5
Dimensional variables and constants
6
Dimensional Reasoning
7
Dimensional Homogeneity
8
Applications of dimensional homogeneity (dimensional reasoning)
9
Dimensions of Derivatives and Integrals
10
Methods of Dimensional Analysis
11
Rayleigh’s Method
12
Buckingham’s pie theorem (Method)
13
Types of forces acting in Moving fluid
14
Dimensionless numbers (Dimensionless Groups) and their significance
15
Use of dimensionless group in experimental investigation
16
Model Analysis: (model testing)
17
Model laws or similarity laws
18
Model testing of partially sub- merged bodies

Viscous Flow

1
Reynolds number and Reynolds experiment
2
Flow of Viscous fluid through circular pipe – HAGEN POISEVILLE LAW
3
Flow of Viscous fluid between two parallel fixed plates
4
Power absorbed in viscous flow
5
Movement of piston in dash pot
6
Methods of Measurement of Viscosity

Compressible Fluid Flow

1
Introduction
2
Basic Thermodynamic Relations
3
Basic thermodynamic processes
4
Basic equations for one dimensional compressible flow
5
Pressure wave propagation and sound velocity
6
Mach Number (M)
7
Propagation of pressure waves in compressible fluid and Mach number
8
Stagnation properties
9
Area velocity relationship for compressible flow
10
Flow through Nozzle

Turbulent Flow

1
Characteristics of different types of flow
2
Loss of energy in pipes
3
Expression for co-efficient of friction – Darchy-Weichback equation
4
Co-efficient of friction in terms of shear stress
5
Shear stress in Turbulent flow
6
Hydrodynamically smooth and rough pipes
7
Velocity distribution in turbulent flow through pipes
8
Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in hydrodynamically smooth and rough pipe (in term of average velocity)
9
Resistance to flow of fluid in smooth and rough pipes
5
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