FLUID MECHANICS
GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
FLUID MECHANICS
SUBJECT CODE: 2141906
B.E 4th SEMESTER
 Fluid and Their Properties: Introduction of fluid, fluid classification, hypothesis of continuum, Shear stress in moving fluid, molecular structure of material, fluid density, viscosity, causes of viscosity in gases and liquids, surface tension, capillary effect, vapor pressure, cavitation, compressibility and the bulk modules.
 Pressures and Head: Types of Pressure, Pascal’s law of pressure at a point, variation of pressure vertically in fluid under gravity, equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid, general equation for the variation of pressure due to gravity from a point to point in a static fluid, pressure and head, the hydrostatic paradox, pressure measurements using Elastic Pressure Transducers, Force Balance Pressure gauge, Electrical Pressure Transducers.
 Static Forces on Surface and Buoyancy: Fluid static, action of fluid pressure on surface, resultant force and center of pressure on a plane surface under uniform pressure, resultant force and center of pressure on a plane surface immersed in a liquid, pressure diagram, forces on a curved surface due to hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy, equilibrium of floating bodies, stability of a submerged body, stability of floating bodies, determination of the metacentric height, determination of the position of the metacenter relative to the center of buoyancy.
 Motion of Fluid Particles and Streams: Fluid flow, different types of flow, frames of reference, analyzing fluid flow, motion of a fluid particle, acceleration of a fluid particle, discharge and mean velocity, continuity of flow, continuity equations for 2D and 3D flow in cartesian coordinates of system.
 The Energy Equation and its Application:Â Momentum and fluid flow, momentum equation for 2D and 3D flow along a streamline, momentum correction factor, Euler’s equation of motion along a stream line, Mechanical energy of a flowing flid Bernoulli’s theorem, kinetic energy correction factor, pitot tube, determination of volumetric flow rate via pitot tube, changes of pressure in tapering pipe, principle of venturi meter, pipe orifices, theory of small orifices discharging to atmosphere, theory of large orifices, Rotameter, elementary theory of notches and weirs, flow in a curved path.
 TwoDimensional Ideal Fluid Flow: Rotational and ir rotational flow, circulation and vorticity, streamlines and the stream function, velocity potential and potential flow, relation between stream function and velocity potential; flow nets, stream function and velocity potential for uniform flow, vortex flow.
 Dimensional Analysis And Similarities: Dimension reasoning, dimensional homogeneity, dimensional analysis using Rayleigh’s method, Buckingham pi theorem, significance of dimensionless, use of dimensionless numbers in experimental investigation, geometric similarity, dynamic similarity, Kinematic similarity, model testing Model laws, Undistorted and distorted models.
 Viscous Flow: Reynolds number and Reynolds experiment, flow of viscous fluid through circular pipe Hagen Poiseuille formula, Flow of viscous fluid between two parallel fixed plates, power absorbed in viscous flow through journal, foot step and collar bearing, movement of piston in dash pot, method of measurement of viscosity.
 Turbulent Flow1; Expression for coefficient of friction Darchy Weishbach Equation, Moody diagram resistance of smooth and rough pipes shear stress and velocity distribution in turbulent flow through pipes.
 Flow through pipes: Major energy losses, Minor energy losses, Hydraulic gradient and total energy lines, Pipes in series and parallel, Equivalent pipes, Siphon, power transmission through pipe, flow through nozzle at end of pipe, water hammer in pipes.
 Compressible Flow: Basic equation for one dimensional compression, Pressure wave propagation, sound velocity in fluid, Mach number, Stagnation properties.
Fluids and their Properties

1Introduction

2Fluids

3Shear stress in moving fluid

4Difference between solid and fluid

5Newtonian and NonNewtonian Fluid

6Liquids and Gases

7Molecular Structure of material

8The continuum concept of a fluid

9Density

10Viscosity

11Cause of Viscosity in gases

12Cause of Viscosity in liquid

13Surface tension

14Capillary or Meniscus Effect

15Vapor Pressure

16Cavitation

17Compressibility and the bulk modulus

18Equation of state of a perfect gas

19The universal gas constant

20Specific heats of a gas

21Expansion of a gas
Pressure and Head

22Static's of fluid system

23Pressure

24Pascal's law of pressure at a points

25Variation of pressure vertically in a fluid under the gravity

26Equality of pressure at the same level in a static fluid

27General equation for the variation of pressure due to gravity from point to point in a static fluid

28Pressure and Head

29The Hydrostatic Paradox

30Pressure Measurement by Manometer

31Forced Vortex
Static Forces on Surface and Buoyancy

32Action of fluid pressure on surface

33Resultant force (total pressure force) and centre of pressure on a plane surface under uniform pressure

34Resultant force (total pressure force) and centre of pressure on a plane surface immersed in a liquid

35Pressure Diagram

36Force on a curved surface due to Hydrostatic pressure

37Bouyancy

38Equilibrium of Floating Bodies

39Stability of submerged body

40Stability of floating bodies

41Determination of the metacentric height

42Determination of the position of the metacenter relative to the center of buoyancy

43Periodic time of oscillation
Motion of fluid particles and Streams

44Fluid flow

45Different types of flow or classification of fluid flow

46Frames of reference

47Real and ideal fluids

48Analyzing fluid flow

49Motion of a fluid particle

50Acceleration of a fluid particle

51Discharge and mean velocity

52Continuity of flow

53Continuity equations for 2D and 3D flow in Cartesian  coordinates system
The Energy equation and its application

54Momentum and fluid flow

55Momentum equation for two and three dimensional flow along a streamline

56Momentum correction factor

57Euler's equation of motion along a stream line

58Mechanical energy of a flowing fluid  Bernoulli's theorem

59Kinetic energy correction factor

60Pitot tube

61Determination of volumetric flow rate via pitot tube

62Changes of pressure in tapering pipe

63Principle of Venturi meter

64Pipe orifices

65Limitation on the velocity of flow in a pipeline

66Theory of small orifices discharging to atmosphere

67Theory of large orifices

68Elementary theory of notches and weirs

69Flow in curved path Pressure gradient and change of total energy across the streamline
TwoDimensional ideal fluid flow
Dimensional Analysis and Similarities

77Dimensional Analysis

78Application of dimensional analysis

79Dimension and units

80Fundamental and derived units and dimensions

81Dimensional variables and constants

82Dimensional Reasoning

83Dimensional Homogeneity

84Applications of dimensional homogeneity (dimensional reasoning)

85Dimensions of Derivatives and Integrals

86Methods of Dimensional Analysis

87Rayleigh's Method

88Buckingham's pie theorem (Method)

89Types of forces acting in Moving fluid

90Dimensionless numbers (Dimensionless Groups) and their significance

91Use of dimensionless group in experimental investigation

92Model Analysis: (model testing)

93Model laws or similarity laws

94Model testing of partially sub merged bodies
Viscous Flow
Compressible Fluid Flow

101Introduction

102Basic Thermodynamic Relations

103Basic thermodynamic processes

104Basic equations for one dimensional compressible flow

105Pressure wave propagation and sound velocity

106Mach Number (M)

107Propagation of pressure waves in compressible fluid and Mach number

108Stagnation properties

109Area velocity relationship for compressible flow

110Flow through Nozzle
Turbulent Flow

111Characteristics of different types of flow

112Loss of energy in pipes

113Expression for coefficient of friction  DarchyWeichback equation

114Coefficient of friction in terms of shear stress

115Shear stress in Turbulent flow

116Hydrodynamically smooth and rough pipes

117Velocity distribution in turbulent flow through pipes

118Velocity distribution for turbulent flow in hydrodynamically smooth and rough pipe (in term of average velocity)

119Resistance to flow of fluid in smooth and rough pipes